Major European rulers in 1666

July 17, 2009

1666 Europe map with leaders

England, Scots and Ireland – Charles II Stuart, age 36

Republic of the Seven United Netherlands – Grand Pensionary Johan de Witt, age 41

France – Louis XIV, age 28

Spanish Empire – Charles II Habsburg, age 5

Portugal – Afonso VI, age 23

Denmark-Norway – Frederick III, age 57

Swedish Empire – Charles XI, age 11

Brandenburg-Prussia – Elector Friedrich Wilhelm, age 46

Holy Roman Emperor/Bohemia-Hungary – Leopold I Habsburg, age 26

Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth – Jan II Kazimierz Vasa, age 57

Tsardom of Russia – Alexei I Romanov, age 37

Ottoman Empire – Mehmed IV, age 24

(To the extent possible, all are portrayed in paintings executed in or around the year 1666.  Charles of Spain shown at the age of 10, Frederick III probably in his 30s, Mehmed IV and Alexei I in undated standard portraits.)

Current Intelligence for July 16, 1666

July 17, 2009

1666 07 16 Intelligence b_1

1666 07 16 Intelligence b_2

Gazette for July 16, 1666

July 17, 2009

1666 07 16 Gazette_1

1666 07 16 Gazette_2

Current Intelligence (ed. Henry Muddiman) for July 12, 1666

July 13, 2009

1666 07 12 Current Intelligence _1

1666 07 12 Current Intelligence _2

London Gazette (ed. Charles Perrot) for July 12, 1666

July 13, 2009

gazette 07 12 pdf_1

gazette 07 12 pdf_2

Printing press (French, around the year 1642)

July 13, 2009

French printer's workshop c. 1642